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 Tumor Necrosis Factor
 Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)

A protein ( cytokine ) which mediates tumor cell necrosis and destroys cancer cells. Found in two forms :

  1. TNFalpha (cachetin)
  2. TNFbeta (lymphotoxin)
The genes that encode both TNF forms are found in the MHC . Both forms of TNF bind to the same receptors and therefore have the same activities. TNFalpha is produced by macrophages and some other cells. TNFbeta is produced by T-cells . There is significant activity overlap with IL1 . IL1 and TNF act alone or together to induce systemic inflammation (e.g., fever). LPS (an endotoxin) from bacteria stimulates production of TNFalpha. TNF is also chemotactic for neutrophils and monocytes , as well as increasing neutrophil activity. Is also thought to upregulate HIV replication, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of wasting (cachexia) due to the loss of fat from fat cells and increased metabolism of muscle cells. TNF causes the symptoms associated with bacterial infections (septic shock , fever, muscle ache, lethargy, headache, nausea and inflammation ).



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