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Rhinorrhea Rhinitis

Rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa (the mucous membrane that lines the nose and the sinus ), often due to an allergic reaction to pollen , dust or other airborne substances ( allergens ). Although the pathophysiology of many types of rhinitis is unknown, an accurate diagnosis is necessary, since not all types of rhinitis will respond to the same treatment measures. A heterogeneous disorder.

Classification of chronic rhinitis:

  • Atopic Rhinitis
  • Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis (also known as hay fever )
  • Perennial Rhinitis (year-round) with Allergic Triggers
  • Perennial Rhinitis with Non-Allergic Triggers
  • Idiopathic Non-Allergic Rhinitis
  • Infectious Rhinitis
  • Rhinitis Medicamentosa
  • Mechanical Obstruction
  • Hormonal
  • Other types
Allergic (seasonal and perennial) rhinitis

Characterised by an inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes due to an allergic response. The most common of all atopic diseases in the United States, affecting up to 10% of the adult population. While no one dies directly as a result of allergic rhinitis, the economic impact is substantial. Over $600 million is spent in the USA annually in the management of this disease. This does not include the costs of the 2 million lost workdays, 3 million lost school days and 28 million days of decreased productivity from the symptoms of the disease and/or side effects of the medications used to treat them.
Clinically, information is gained from a nasal examination which may reveal pale, boggy turbinate as well as clear to greenish rhinorrhea. When colored nasal secretions are stained and examined, they typically reveal large numbers of eosinophils as the main inflammatory cell. In many instances (particularly in children) complications such as chronic otitis media, rhinosinusitis and conjunctivitis can be traced to chronic obstruction from allergic rhinitis.
Concerning the treatment of allergic rhinitis, corticosteroid nasal sprays are very effective agents, especially for symptoms of congestion, sneezing, and runny nose.
The main cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis are tree , grass or weed pollens . For information on the main pollens and their pollination periods in all the world's regions, go to the HON Pollen Calendar .



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