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Female Reproductive System: Internal Organs

The main internal female genital organs and their functions are explained briefly below:

  • The vagina is the passageway through which fluid passes out of the body during menstrual periods . It is also called the birth canal . The vagina connects the cervix (the opening of the womb, or uterus ) and the vulva (the external genitalia).
  • The uterus , also called the womb , is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum. The main parts of the uterus are:
    • Cervix . The narrow, lower portion of the uterus.
    • Corpus . The broader, upper part of the uterus.
    • Myometrium . The outer layer of the corpus; the muscle that expands during pregnancy to hold the growing foetus.
    • Endometrium . The inner lining of the uterus.
  • The ovaries are female reproductive organs located in the pelvis.  There are two of them, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone. Oestrogen and progesterone control the development of female body characteristics in puberty (i.e., breasts, body shape and body hair), and regulate the menstrual cycle until menopause as well as pregnancy .
  • The fallopian tubes are 2 extensions from the upper left and right hand sides of the uterus to each of the 2 ovaries. Each ovum released by the ovaries in its 28 day cycle drops into the enlarged end of the fallopian tube nearest it, and is propelled along by cilia on the fallopian tube wall in the hope of meeting sperm and thus become fertilised .

The information in this page is presented in summarised form and has been taken from the following source(s):
1. Motherisk, The Hospital for Sick Children:

Other HON resources 
   From MedHunt

Internal Female Genital Organs
    From HONselect
     (def;articles & more)   

Cervix Uteri
Fallopian Tubes

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Cervix Uteri
Fallopian Tubes


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Contact Last modified: Jun 25 2002