Primary Motility  Disorders of the  Esophagus
 The Esophageal
 Esophagogastric  Junction

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Volume: The Esophagogastric Junction
Chapter: Anatomy-physiology

What anatomic structures are undoubtedly responsible for gastroesophageal competence?
D. Liebermann-Meffert (Munich) 

The lower esophageal sphincter zone seems to exist from birth
C. Di Lorenzo (Pittsburgh) 

What is the relationship between muscular structures and the manometric 3D-image of the LES?
H.J. Stein, O. Korn, D. Liebermann-Meffert (Munich) 

How can the sphincteric action of the diaphragm in humans be described? What is the relationship between contraction at the EGJ and increase in intra-abdominal pressure?
R.K. Mittal (San Diego CA) 

How can the contribution of intra-abdominal pressure, crural diaphragm, and smooth muscle sphincter be distinguished in LESP and in LES movements?
G. Cargill (Paris) 

 How can crural sphincteric competence be assessed radiologically?
S. Sloan (Chicago) 

 What standardization should be adopted in scintigraphy to evaluate LES dysfunction?
D. d'Ugo, V. Valenza, G. Castrucci, V. Porziella, O. Giacinto, G. d'Andrea, G. Galli (Rome) 

 Does ultrafast computerized tomography allow for better investigation of the lower esophageal contractions?
P. Pouderoux (Nîmes), G.A. Ergun, S. Lin, P.J. Kahrilas (Chicago) 

 What are the myogenic and neurogenic components of the LES high pressure zone at rest?
M. Mignon, G. Cadiot (Paris) 

 What is the role of LES length in preventing GERD? The role of the phreno-esophageal ligament
T. Lerut (Leuven) 

 What is the value of impedance planimetry in investigating the biomechanical specificities of the LES?
S.S.C. Rao, R.S. Patel (Iowa City) 

 What are the factors introducing variability of the basal LESP?
C.E. Pope II (Seattle) 

 Is there a relationship between esophageal and gastric motility during the interdigestive period?
L. Marzio (Pescara) 

 Is the cyclic nature of MMC dependent on the sleep cycle?
D.A. Gorard (London) 

 What is the esophageal distribution of MMC compared to other digestive sites?
J.E. Kellow (Sydney) 

 According to the variations in LESP with MMC, is the conventional short-lasting withdrawal manometry technique sufficient? Therefore, would it be logical to carry out manometric measurements after a test meal to interrupt the MMC?
G. Cargill (Paris) 

 Which neurotransmitter is responsible for cardia relaxation?
P. Ducrotté (Rouen) 

 How are TLESRs triggered?
P.J. Hornby (New Orleans) 

 What are the characteristics of LES relaxation following esophageal distention? Is there a correlation with the triggering stimulus?
M.N. Schoeman, R.H. Holloway (Adelaide) 

 Is LESR following esophageal distention related to the location of the stimulus?
S.R. Orenstein (Pittsburgh) 

 What is the major motor activity responsible for esophageal clearance?  Is the role of secondary peristalsis overestimated?
J.A. Castell (Philadelphia) 

 What are the mechanisms of LESP lowering by esophageal acidification?
L.A. Blackshaw (Adelaide) 

 What information on the physiology of the LES can be expected from the esophagorectal reflex?
A. Shafik (Cairo) 

 What information concerning neural pathways of the gut-brain axis can be obtained from electrical stimulation, balloon distention?
S. Hollerbach (Regensburg), G. Tougas, D. Fitzpatrick, M.V. Kamath, A.R.M. Upton (Hamilton)  

 The brain-evoked potentials in esophageal motility
J. Bancewicz, D.G. Thompson (Salford) 

 What is the current knowledge of the analysis of esophageal evoked potentials?  Are dipole modeling techniques useful?
G. Tougas, M.V. Kamath, T. Tam, A.R.M. Upton (Hamilton), S. Hollerbach (Regensburg) 

 Can nitric oxide be considered as the mediator of LES relaxation?
A. Keshavarzian (Chicago) 

 Has the role of nitric oxide in the control of LES relaxation, and esophageal contraction, been proven in humans?
G.E. Boeckxstaens, G.N.J. Tytgat (Amsterdam) 

 Do PACAP's (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptides) have an effective role in LES relaxation?
L. Ny, K.E. Andersson (Lund) 

 What is the means of carbon monoxide involvement in the regulation of LES motility?
L. Ny, K.E. Andersson (Lund) 

 Compared to animal experiments, what are the effects of prostaglandins on the LES in man?
T.R. Weihrauch, P. Demol (Wuppertal) 

 Does neuropeptide substance P depress esophageal peristalsis? By which mechanisms?
P. Holzer, U. Holzer-Petsche (Graz) 

 What are the effects of erythromycin on basal and postprandial LESP and esophago-gastric motility?
G.E. Boeckxstaens, G.N.J. Tytgat (Amsterdam) 

Publication date: May 1998 OESO©2015