Rhinitis is an
of the nasal mucosa (the mucous membrane that lines the nose and the ), often due to an allergic reaction to ,
or other airborne substances ( ). Although the pathophysiology of
many types of rhinitis is unknown, an accurate diagnosis
is necessary, since not all types of rhinitis will respond to the same treatment measures.
A heterogeneous disorder.
Classification of chronic rhinitis:
Allergic (seasonal and perennial) rhinitis
Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis (also known as
hay fever )
Perennial Rhinitis (year-round) with Allergic Triggers
Perennial Rhinitis with Non-Allergic Triggers
Idiopathic Non-Allergic Rhinitis
Characterised by an inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes
due to an allergic response. The most common of all atopic diseases in
the United States, affecting up to 10% of the adult population. While
no one dies directly as a result of allergic rhinitis, the economic impact
is substantial. Over $600 million is spent in the USA annually in the
management of this disease. This does not include the costs of the 2 million
lost workdays, 3 million lost school days and 28 million days of decreased
productivity from the symptoms of the disease and/or side effects of the
medications used to treat them.
Clinically, information is gained from a nasal examination which may reveal
pale, boggy turbinate as well as clear to greenish rhinorrhea. When colored
nasal secretions are stained and examined, they typically reveal large
numbers of as the main inflammatory
cell. In many instances (particularly in children) complications such
as chronic otitis media, rhinosinusitis and
can be traced to chronic obstruction from allergic rhinitis.
Concerning the treatment of allergic rhinitis,
nasal sprays are very effective agents, especially for of congestion, sneezing, and runny nose.
The main cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis are ,
For information on the main pollens and their pollination periods in all
the world's regions, go to the .