Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Overview
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Appendixes - The Liver
- It is a large organ with many regulatory and storage
functions. The liver is situated in the upper abdomen, and weighs
about 2 kg/4.5 lb. It is divided into four lobes. The liver
receives the products of digestion, converts glucose to glycogen
(a long-chain carbohydrate used for storage), and breaks down
fats. It removes excess amino acids from the blood, converting
them to urea, which is excreted by the kidneys. The liver also
synthesises vitamins, produces bile and blood-clotting factors,
and removes damaged red cells and toxins such as alcohol from the
The Liver from the Prescription for Nutritional Healing
- Weight about four pounds, the liver is the largest gland of
the body and the only organ that will regenerate itself when part
of it damaged. Up to 25 percent of the liver can be removed, and
within a short period of time, it will grow back to its original
shape and size.
- The liver has many functions, perhaps the most important of
which is its secretion of bile. This fluid is stored in the
gallbladder for release when needed for digestion. Bile is
necessary for the digestion of fats; it breaks fat down into small
globules. Bile also assists in the absorption of fat soluble
vitamins A, D, F, and K, and helps to assimilate calcium. In
addition, bile converts beta-carotene to vitamin A. It promotes
intestinal peristalsis as well, which helps prevent constipation.
- After food has been absorbed into the bloodstream through the
intestinal wall, it is transported by way of the hepatic portal
system to the liver. In the liver nutrients such as iron and
vitamins A, B12 and D are extracted from the bloodstream and
stored for future use. These stored substances are utilised for
everyday activities and in times of physical stress. In addition,
the liver plays an important role in fat metabolism, in the
synthesis of fatty acids from amino acids and sugars, in the
production of lipoproteins, cholesterol, and phowpholipids, and in
the oxidation of fat to produce energy. Finally, excess food in
converted to fat in the liver, which is then transported to the
fatty tissues of the body for storage.
- The liver also acts as a detoxifier. Protein metabolism and
bacterial fermentation of food in the intestines produces the
by-product ammonia, which is detoxified by the liver. The liver
regulates protein metabolism. In addition to detoxifying ammonia,
the liver also combines toxic substances including metabolic
waste, insecticide residues, drugs, alcohol, and chemicals with
other substances the are less toxic. These substances are then
excreted from the kidneys. Thus in order to have proper liver
function, you must also have proper kidney function. Physicians
have found that when either the liver of kidney appears to be
malfunctioning, treating both organs produces the best health
- In addition to its many other functions, the liver is
responsible for regulating blood sugar levels by converting
thyroxine, a thyroid hormone, into its more active form.
Inadequate conversion by the liver may lead to hypothyroidism. The
liver creates GTF(Glucose tolerance Factor) from chromium and
glutathione. GTF is required for insulin to regulate blood sugar
- Excess sugar will be stored in the body as glycogen, and then
converted back to sugars when needed for energy. The liver also
breaks down hormones like adrenaline, aldosterone, and estrogen,
and insulin after they have performed their needed functions.
This is a glossary of some of the terms used within this document.
It is not complete.
ACUTE YELLOW ATROPHY OF LIVER:
- Any severe form of hepatitis marked by shrinkage and necrosis
- Alanine aminotransferase
- Aspartate aminotransferase
- Rare disease characterized by occlusion of hepatic veins,
usually accompanied by ascites, hepatomegaly, and pain in
abdomen.Caval venogram provided delineation of caval webs and
occluded hepatic veins. Percutaneous liver biosy may aid in
revealing central lobular congestion. As the diseases progresses,
bleeding varices and hepatic coma may develop.
CIRRHOSIS OF THE LIVER:
- organ diffusely nodular and firm. Stages of nodular
development may include:
MACRONODULAR CIRRHOSIS: features large nodules, measuring several
centimeters in diameter.
MICRONODULAR CIRRHOSIS: features nodules measuring one milimeter
in diameter or less. -
PRESENCE OF BOTH MACRONODULAR AND MICRONODULAR CIRRHOSIS: features
the mixture of both small and large nodules.
- Obstructive form is characterized by chronic jaundice and
liver failure due to obstruction and inflammation of bile ducts.
- Abnormal lipid increase in the liver, probably related to
reduced oxidation of fatty acids or decreased synthesis and
release of lipoprotiens, causing inadequate lipid clearance from
- Hepatitis B Core protein
- Hepatitis B Surface protein(s)
- Hepatitis B Virus
HBV DNA Polymerase or HBV DNAp:
- Hepatitis B DNA polymerase
- Licorice root
- Excess of iron absorption and presence of iron-containing
deposits (hemosiderin) in liver, pancreas, kidneys, adrenals, and
heart. It may be associated with hepatic enlargement and
insufficiency and esophageal bleeding from varices.
- Stones originating in extrahepatic biliary tract or solely in
the liver. They are also found in liver cysts.
HEPATIC COMA, CHOLEMIA:
- Peculiar syndrome characterized by slow or rapid onset of
bizarre behavior, disorientation, flapping tremors of extended
arms, and hyperactive reflexes, and later lethargy and coma. It
seems to be caused by intoxiation with ammonia, a product of
protein digestion that the diseased liver fails to convert into
- Serious complication of advanced liver disease probably caused
by cerebral toxins, including ammonia, certain amines, and fatty
acids. It is clinically manifested by personality changes and
impaired intellectual ability, awareness, and neuromuscular
HEPATIC FAILURE, FULMINANT:
- Clinical syndrome caused by extensive necrosis of the liver,
which may be induced by hepatoxic drugs and may lead to
progressive encephalopathy and a fatal prognosis.
HEPATIC INJURY, DRUG INDUCED:
- Liver injury may be:
- CHOLESTATIC: Injury mimicking obstructive jaundice; for
example, due to the use of chlorpromazine, erythromycin, steroids,
and oral contraceptives.
- CYTOTOXIC: injury leading to severe hepatocellular jaundice
and severe liver necrosis and failure; for example, due to the use
of isoniazid, methyldopa, halothane, and tetracycline.
- Destruction of functional liver tissue.
- Liver injury resulting from blunt trauma or penetrating
- Acute or chronic inflammation of the liver caused by the
hepatitis viruc A, B, C, D,E,F,G or other cryptogenic virus
- Tumor of the liver.
Combined liver and kidney failure; usually caused by serious
injury to the liver associated with hemorrhage, chock, and acute
- The mechanisms of hepatoprotection are diverse, and include
antioxidant activity (Kiso et al; Abdugafurova et al; Tan; Ju et al),
direct antiviral effects
(Hikino; Crance), enhancement of interferon production (Hikino; Shinada); enhanced antibody production (Hikino), enhancement of extrathymic T-Cell
activity in the liver (Kimura et al), and protection from immunological (auto-immune) injuries (Hikino; Mizoguchi et al). A number of animal and in vitro
trials have shown that glycyrrhizin can protect liver cells from damage from a variety of chemical or immunological agents (Nakamura et al; Mizoguchi et
al; Shibayama; Shiki et al; Zhao et al).
IgM - IgG:
- Immunoglobulin type M, type G.
Vulgarisation name: antibodies.
- AMEBIC ABSCESS: Localized hepatic infection by Entamoeba
histolytica; a common complication of intestinal amebiasis.
- PYOGENIC ABSCESS: Circumscribed area of suppuration. Infection
brought to liver via portal vein, hepatic artery, or bile ducts.
POLYCYSTIC LIVER DISEASE:
- Cystic degeneration of the liver usually associated with
congential polycystic kidneys.
- a portal venous pressure greater than 20 mm Hg associated with
splenomegaly, increased collateral circulation, varicosity,
bleeding and ascites. It may result from: INTRAHEPATIC BLOCK:
Block within the liver, or EXTRAHEPATIC BLOCK: Block within the
PRIMARY CARCINOMA OF THE LIVER:
- Metastatic malignant neoplasm, ususally from lung, breast, or
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