Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Overview


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Appendixes - The Liver
Glossary

Appendixes

The Liver

It is a large organ with many regulatory and storage functions. The liver is situated in the upper abdomen, and weighs about 2 kg/4.5 lb. It is divided into four lobes. The liver receives the products of digestion, converts glucose to glycogen (a long-chain carbohydrate used for storage), and breaks down fats. It removes excess amino acids from the blood, converting them to urea, which is excreted by the kidneys. The liver also synthesises vitamins, produces bile and blood-clotting factors, and removes damaged red cells and toxins such as alcohol from the blood.

The Liver from the Prescription for Nutritional Healing

Weight about four pounds, the liver is the largest gland of the body and the only organ that will regenerate itself when part of it damaged. Up to 25 percent of the liver can be removed, and within a short period of time, it will grow back to its original shape and size.
The liver has many functions, perhaps the most important of which is its secretion of bile. This fluid is stored in the gallbladder for release when needed for digestion. Bile is necessary for the digestion of fats; it breaks fat down into small globules. Bile also assists in the absorption of fat soluble vitamins A, D, F, and K, and helps to assimilate calcium. In addition, bile converts beta-carotene to vitamin A. It promotes intestinal peristalsis as well, which helps prevent constipation.
After food has been absorbed into the bloodstream through the intestinal wall, it is transported by way of the hepatic portal system to the liver. In the liver nutrients such as iron and vitamins A, B12 and D are extracted from the bloodstream and stored for future use. These stored substances are utilised for everyday activities and in times of physical stress. In addition, the liver plays an important role in fat metabolism, in the synthesis of fatty acids from amino acids and sugars, in the production of lipoproteins, cholesterol, and phowpholipids, and in the oxidation of fat to produce energy. Finally, excess food in converted to fat in the liver, which is then transported to the fatty tissues of the body for storage.
The liver also acts as a detoxifier. Protein metabolism and bacterial fermentation of food in the intestines produces the by-product ammonia, which is detoxified by the liver. The liver regulates protein metabolism. In addition to detoxifying ammonia, the liver also combines toxic substances including metabolic waste, insecticide residues, drugs, alcohol, and chemicals with other substances the are less toxic. These substances are then excreted from the kidneys. Thus in order to have proper liver function, you must also have proper kidney function. Physicians have found that when either the liver of kidney appears to be malfunctioning, treating both organs produces the best health results.
In addition to its many other functions, the liver is responsible for regulating blood sugar levels by converting thyroxine, a thyroid hormone, into its more active form. Inadequate conversion by the liver may lead to hypothyroidism. The liver creates GTF(Glucose tolerance Factor) from chromium and glutathione. GTF is required for insulin to regulate blood sugar levels properly.
Excess sugar will be stored in the body as glycogen, and then converted back to sugars when needed for energy. The liver also breaks down hormones like adrenaline, aldosterone, and estrogen, and insulin after they have performed their needed functions.

Glossary

This is a glossary of some of the terms used within this document. It is not complete.

ACUTE YELLOW ATROPHY OF LIVER:
Any severe form of hepatitis marked by shrinkage and necrosis of liver.
ALT:
Alanine aminotransferase
AST:
Aspartate aminotransferase
BUDD-CHIARI SYNDROME:
Rare disease characterized by occlusion of hepatic veins, usually accompanied by ascites, hepatomegaly, and pain in abdomen.Caval venogram provided delineation of caval webs and occluded hepatic veins. Percutaneous liver biosy may aid in revealing central lobular congestion. As the diseases progresses, bleeding varices and hepatic coma may develop.
CIRRHOSIS OF THE LIVER:
organ diffusely nodular and firm. Stages of nodular development may include:
MACRONODULAR CIRRHOSIS: features large nodules, measuring several centimeters in diameter.
MICRONODULAR CIRRHOSIS: features nodules measuring one milimeter in diameter or less. -
PRESENCE OF BOTH MACRONODULAR AND MICRONODULAR CIRRHOSIS: features the mixture of both small and large nodules.
BILIARY CIRRHOSIS:
Obstructive form is characterized by chronic jaundice and liver failure due to obstruction and inflammation of bile ducts.
FATTY LIVER:
Abnormal lipid increase in the liver, probably related to reduced oxidation of fatty acids or decreased synthesis and release of lipoprotiens, causing inadequate lipid clearance from the liver.
HBcAg:
Hepatitis B Core protein
HBsAg:
Hepatitis B Surface protein(s)
HBV:
Hepatitis B Virus
HBV DNA Polymerase or HBV DNAp:
Hepatitis B DNA polymerase
Glycyrrhiza glabra:
Licorice root
HEMOCHROMATOSIS:
Excess of iron absorption and presence of iron-containing deposits (hemosiderin) in liver, pancreas, kidneys, adrenals, and heart. It may be associated with hepatic enlargement and insufficiency and esophageal bleeding from varices.
HEPATIC CALCULI:
Stones originating in extrahepatic biliary tract or solely in the liver. They are also found in liver cysts.
HEPATIC COMA, CHOLEMIA:
Peculiar syndrome characterized by slow or rapid onset of bizarre behavior, disorientation, flapping tremors of extended arms, and hyperactive reflexes, and later lethargy and coma. It seems to be caused by intoxiation with ammonia, a product of protein digestion that the diseased liver fails to convert into urea.
HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY:
Serious complication of advanced liver disease probably caused by cerebral toxins, including ammonia, certain amines, and fatty acids. It is clinically manifested by personality changes and impaired intellectual ability, awareness, and neuromuscular functioning.
HEPATIC FAILURE, FULMINANT:
Clinical syndrome caused by extensive necrosis of the liver, which may be induced by hepatoxic drugs and may lead to progressive encephalopathy and a fatal prognosis.
HEPATIC INJURY, DRUG INDUCED:
Liver injury may be:
CHOLESTATIC: Injury mimicking obstructive jaundice; for example, due to the use of chlorpromazine, erythromycin, steroids, and oral contraceptives.
CYTOTOXIC: injury leading to severe hepatocellular jaundice and severe liver necrosis and failure; for example, due to the use of isoniazid, methyldopa, halothane, and tetracycline.
HEPATIC NECROSIS:
Destruction of functional liver tissue.
HEPATIC TRAUMA:
Liver injury resulting from blunt trauma or penetrating wounds.
HEPATITIS, VIRAL:
Acute or chronic inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis viruc A, B, C, D,E,F,G or other cryptogenic virus
HEPATOMA:
Tumor of the liver.
HEPATOPROTECTION:
The mechanisms of hepatoprotection are diverse, and include antioxidant activity (Kiso et al; Abdugafurova et al; Tan; Ju et al), direct antiviral effects (Hikino; Crance), enhancement of interferon production (Hikino; Shinada); enhanced antibody production (Hikino), enhancement of extrathymic T-Cell activity in the liver (Kimura et al), and protection from immunological (auto-immune) injuries (Hikino; Mizoguchi et al). A number of animal and in vitro trials have shown that glycyrrhizin can protect liver cells from damage from a variety of chemical or immunological agents (Nakamura et al; Mizoguchi et al; Shibayama; Shiki et al; Zhao et al).
HEPATORENAL SYNDROME:
Combined liver and kidney failure; usually caused by serious injury to the liver associated with hemorrhage, chock, and acute renal insufficiency.
IgM - IgG:
Immunoglobulin type M, type G.
Vulgarisation name: antibodies.
LIVER ABSCESS:
AMEBIC ABSCESS: Localized hepatic infection by Entamoeba histolytica; a common complication of intestinal amebiasis.
PYOGENIC ABSCESS: Circumscribed area of suppuration. Infection brought to liver via portal vein, hepatic artery, or bile ducts.
POLYCYSTIC LIVER DISEASE:
Cystic degeneration of the liver usually associated with congential polycystic kidneys.
PORTAL HYPERTENSION:
a portal venous pressure greater than 20 mm Hg associated with splenomegaly, increased collateral circulation, varicosity, bleeding and ascites. It may result from: INTRAHEPATIC BLOCK: Block within the liver, or EXTRAHEPATIC BLOCK: Block within the portal vein.
PRIMARY CARCINOMA OF THE LIVER:
Metastatic malignant neoplasm, ususally from lung, breast, or gastrointestinal cancer.

Stuart Millinship

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